Advanced Planning and Scheduling (aps techniques that deal with analysis and planning of logistics and manufacturing over the short, intermediate, and long-term time periods. Aps describes any computer program that uses advanced mathmatical algorithms or logic to perform optimization or simulation on finite capacity scheduling, sourcing, capital planning, resource planning, forecasting, demand management, and others. These techniques simultaneously consider a range of constraints and business rules to provide real-time planning and scheduling, decision support, available-to-promise, and capable-to-promise capabilities. Aps often generates and evaluates multiple scenarios. Management then selects one scenario to use as the official plan. The five main components of an aps system are demand planning, production planning, production scheduling, distribution planning, and transportation planning. Advanced Shipment Notice (asn an edi term referring to a transaction set (ansi 856) where the supplier sends out a notification to interested parties that a shipment is now outbound in the supply chain.
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Actual against Cost System: A cost system that collects costs historically as they are applied to production, and allocates indirect costs to products wild based on the specific costs and achieved volume of the products. Actual Costs: The labor, material, and associated overhead costs that are charged against a job as it moves through the production process. Actual Demand: Actual demand is composed of customer orders (and often allocations of items, ingredients, or raw materials to production or distribution). Actual demand nets against or consumes the forecast, depending on the rules chosen over a time horizon. For example, actual demand will totally replace forecast inside the sold-out customer order backlog horizon (often called the demand time fence but will net against the forecast outside this horizon based on the chosen forecast consumption rule. Actual to Theoretical Cycle time: The ratio of the measured time required to produce a given output divided by the sum of the time required to produce a given output based on the rated efficiency of the machinery and labor operations. Administrative monetary penalty system (amps a canada customs system of monetary penalties that will be imposed against violations of Canada customs regulations. Ad Valorem Duty: A duty calculated as a percentage of the shipment value. Also see: Duty Advance material Request: Ordering materials before the release of the formal product design. This early release is required because of long lead times.
Activity dictionary: A listing and description of activities that provides a common/standard definition of activities across the organization. An activity dictionary can include information about an activity and/or its relationships, such as activity description, business process, function source, whether value added, inputs, outputs, supplier, customer, output measures, cost drivers, attributes, tasks, and other information as desired to describe the activity. Activity driver Driver: The best single quantitative measure of the frequency and intensity of the demands placed on an activity by cost objects or other activities. It's used to assign activity costs to cost objects or to other activities. Activity level: A description of types of activities dependent on the functional area. Product-related activity levels may include unit, batch, and product levels. Customer-related activity levels may include customer, market, channel, and project levels. Activity ratio: A financial ratio used to determine how an organization's resources perform relative to the revenue the resources produce. Activity ratios include inventory turnover, receivables conversion period, fixed-asset turnover, and return on assets.
Activity-based Costing Model: In activity-based cost accounting, a model, by time period, of resource costs created because of activities related to products or services or other items causing the activity to be carried out. Activity-based travel Costing System: A set of activity-based cost accounting models that collectively defines data on an organization's resources, activities, drivers, objects, and measures. Activity-based Management (abm a discipline focusing on the management of activities within business processes as the route to continuously improve both the value received by customers and the profit earned in providing that value. Amb uses activity-based cost information and performance measurements to influence management action. Activity-based Planning (abp activity-based planning (ABP) is an ongoing process to determine activity and resource requirements (both financial and operational) based on the ongoing demand of products or services by specific customer short needs. Resource requirements are compared to resources available and capacity issues are identified and managed. Activity-based budgeting (ABB) is based on the outputs of activity-based planning.
Activity-based Budgeting (abb an approach to budgeting where a company uses an understanding of its activities and driver relationships to quantitatively estimate workload and resource requirements as part of an ongoing business plan. Budgets show the types, number of, and cost of resources that activities are expected to consume based on forecasted workloads. The budget is part of an organization's activity-based planning process and can be used in evaluating its success in setting and pursuing strategic goals. Activity-based Costing (abc a methodology that measures the cost and performance of cost objects, activities, and resources. Cost objects consume activities and activities consume resources. Resource costs are assigned to activities based on their use of those resources, and activity costs are reassigned to cost objects (outpputs) based on the cost objects proportional use of those activities. Activity-based costing incorporates causal relationships between cost objects and activities and between activities and resources.
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Activities are usually described by the action-verb-adjective-noun grammar convention. Activities may occur in a linked sequence and activity-to-activity assignments may exist. (1) In activity-based cost accounting, a task or activity, performed by or at a resource, required in producing the organization's output of goods and services. A resource may be a person, machine, sports or facility. Activities are grouped into pools by type of activity and allocated to products.
(2) In project management, an element of work on a project. It usually has an anticipated duration, anticipated cost, and expected resource requirements. Sometimes major activity is used for larger bodies of work. Activity Analysis: The process of identifying and cataloging write activities for detailed understanding and documentation of their characteristics. An activity analysis is accomplished by means of interviews, group sessions, questionnaires, observations, and reviews of physical records of work.
Accredited Standards Committee (asc a committee of ansi chartered in 1979 to develop uniform standards for the electronic interchange of business documents. The committee develops and maintains us generic standards (X12) for Electronic Data Interchange. Accumulation Bin: A place, usually a physical location, used to accumulate all components that go into an assembly before the assembly is sent out to the assembly floor. Accuracy: In quality management, the degree of freedom from error or the degree of conformity to a standard. Accuracy is different from precision.
For example, four-significant-digit numbers are less precise than six-significant-digit numbers; however, a properly computed four-significant-digit number might be more accurate than an improperly computed six-significant-digit number. Acd: see automated Call Distribution. Acknowledgement: A communication by a supplier to advise a purchaser that a purchase order has been received. It usually implies acceptance of the order by the supplier. Acquisition Cost: In cost accounting, the cost required to obtain one or more units of an item. It is order quantity times unit cost. Action Message: An alert that an mrp or drp system generates to inform the controller of a situation requiring his or her attention. Active stock: goods in active pick locations and ready for order filling. Activity: Work performed by people, equipment, technologies, or facilities.
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Accountability: being answerable for, din but not necessarily personally charged with, doing specific work. Accountability cannot be delegated, but it can be shared. For example, managers and executives are accountable for business performance even though they may not actually perform the work. Accounts payable (A/p the value of goods and services acquired for which payment has not yet been made. Accounts Receivable (A/r the value of goods shipped or services rendered to a customer on whom payment has not been received. Usually includes an allowance for bad debts. Accreditation: Certification by a recognized body of the facilities, capability, objectivity, competence, and integrity of an agency, service, operational group, or individual to provide the specific service or operation needed. For example, the registrar Accreditation board accredits those organizations that register companies to the iso 9000 Series Standards.
Acceptance sampling: 1) The process of papers sampling a portion of goods for inspection rather than examining the entire lot. The entire lot may be accepted or rejected based on the sample even though the specific units in the lot are better or worse than the sample. There are two types: attributes sampling and variables sampling. In attributes sampling, the presence or absence of a characteristic is noted in each of the units inspected. In variables sampling, the numerical magnitude of a characteristic is measured and recorded for each inspected unit; this type of sampling involves reference to a continuous scale of some kind. 2) A method of measuring random samples of lots or batches of products against predetermined standards. Accessibility: A carrier's ability to provide service between an origin and a destination. Accessorial Charges: A carrier's charge for accessorial services such as loading, unloading, pickup, and delivery, or any other charge deemed appropriate.
to inventory valuation in which variable costs and a portion of fixed costs are assigned to each unit of production. The fixed costs are usually allocated to units of output on the basis of direct labor hours, machine hours, or material costs. Accelerated Commercial Release Operations Support System (across a canada customs system to speed the release of shipments by allowing electronic transmission of data to and from Canada customs 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Acceptable quality level (aql in quality management, when a continuing series of lots is considered, aql represents a quality level that, for the purposes of sampling inspection, is the limit of a satisfactory process average. Acceptable sampling Plan: In quality management, a specific plan that indicates the sampling sizes and the associated acceptance or non-acceptance criteria to be used. Also see: Acceptance sampling. Acceptance number: In quality management, 1) A number used in acceptance sampling as a cut off at which the lot will be accepted or rejected. For example, if x or more units are bad within the sample, the lot will be rejected. 2) The value of the test statistic that divides all possible values into acceptance and rejection regions.
The next grouping, b, represents about 20 of the items and 20 of the dollare volume. The c-class contains 60 to 70 of the items, and represents about 10 to 30 of the dollar volume. Abc costing: student see activity-based Costing (ABC) abc inventory control: An inventory control approach based on the abc volume or sales revenue classification of products (A items are highest volume or revenue, c - or perhaps d - are lowest volume skus.) abc model: In cost. Abc system: In cost management, a system that maintains financial and operating data on an organization's resources, activities, drivers, objects and measures. Abc models are created and maintained within this system. Abi: * see automated Broker Interface (ABI) abm: see activity-based Management (ABM). Abp: see activity-based Planning (ABP). Abnormal Demand: Demand in any period that is outside the limits established by management policy. This demand may come from a new customer or from existing customers whose own demand is increasing or decreasing.
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And just what is, poka yoke, anyway? Inbound Logistics' glossary of transportation, logistics, supply chain, and international trade terms help. A, b c, d e, f g, h i, j k,. N o, p q, r s, t u, v w x y bc analysis: A classification of items in an inventory according to importance defined in terms of criteria such as sales volume and purchase volume. Abc classification: Classification of a group of items in decreasing order of annual dollar volume or other criteria. This array is then split into three classes called a, b, and. The a group represents 10 to 20 by number of items, and 50 essay to 70 by projected dollar volume.